Adapting the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale within the Nigerian South: The real and imagined paranormal phenomena taxonomy

  • Sulaimon Olanrewaju Adebayo
  • Babatola Dominic Olawa
  • Amarachi Grace Ajah


The Tobacyck’s Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was subjected to validation within the Nigerian South-West. We assessed the fitness of the seven-factor model of the RPBS by utilizing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in study 1. However, the model could not be replicated. Consequently, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to obtain an alternative model. EFA outcome showed a two-factor structure namely Imagined Paranormal Phenomena (IPP) and Real Paranormal Phenomena (RPP). In study 2, CFA was performed to confirm the two-factor solution. Result suggested that only the IPP (with 2 items excluded) could be retained in the model. The IPP (renamed as RPBS-12 items) gave an accepted internal consistency coefficient of .79 and invariant for ethnicity. In study 3, we assessed for both criterion-oriented and discriminant validity for the RPBS-12. For the criterion-oriented validity, a hierarchical regression model showed that the RPBS-12 scores predicted fear of charm scores (β = .28, p< .001). The correlation of the RPBS-12 items scores with social support scores was not significant (r = -.01, p = .62), thus providing evidence for a discriminant validity. We recommended the use of the one factor RPBS-12 items in the assessment of paranormal belief within the Nigerian context, and a further test of its suitability within other African populations.